Review of Instructional Design Models Applied to Learning

The Benefits of eLearning
November 14, 2016
2016 Learning & Development Reports: Key Findings and Future Trends
December 12, 2016
Show all

Review of Instructional Design Models Applied to Learning

Instructional Design is also referred to as Instructional Systems Design (ISD), is the process of creating instructional experiences that make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient and effective. The instructional design discipline grew out of World War II, when the U.S. military needed to quickly train large numbers of personnel to perform various tasks.

While the terms Instructional Technology and Educational Technology are frequently used interchangeably, they are not exactly the same. The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) defines Instructional technology as “the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning,” while Educational Technology is defined as “study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.”

What is an Instructional Design Model?

An instructional design model is a representation of a complex entity or phenomenon. Instructional Design Models help the designer visualize the problem at hand and break it down into more manageable units.

Furthermore, an instructional design model is a framework for developing instruction that enhance learning outcomes and also encourages learners to gain a deeper level of understanding. In other words, IDM tells instructional designers how to organize pedagogical or andragogical situations in order to achieve instructional goals. It is important to note that effective instructional models are based on learning and instructional theories.

Models are classified into prescriptive and descriptive. Prescriptive models provide guidelines to organize and structure instructional activities while descriptive models describe the learning environment and how it affects variables at play.

There are many instructional models that have been developed over the years, and most are based on the ADDIE model. ADDIE stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.

This systematic IDM consists of five generic phases, which have been refined over the years in other models like the Dick and Carey Design Model and the Rapid Prototyping Model.

Common examples of these instructional models include:

  • Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction
  • Bloom’s Learning Taxonomy
  • Kirkpatrick’s 4 Levels of Training Evaluation
  • Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction
  • Kemp’s IDM
  • Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction)
  • ASSURE Model (Analyze Learners, State Objectives, Select Methods, Media, and Materials, Utilize Media and Materials, Require Learner Participation, and Evaluate and Revise)
  • Smith and Ragan IDM
  • Rapid Prototyping Model.

This of course is a non-exhaustive list.

It is important to note that with all models, the learner is (or should be) central to instruction. The learning context is important to positive instructional outcomes. This includes instruction at all levels (i.e. K-12 education, higher education, and workplace). As a final point, instructional design models are applicable to e-learning developers, teachers, trainers and college level instructors to name a few.

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Translate »